Citing CAZy Classifications

We are working hard at putting together and maintaining this server for the scientific community. If you found this server useful for your research we would appreciate if you make an appropriate citation. There are several ways to cite the CAZy database :

A. Mention this server name (Carbohydrate Active Enzymes database) and URL ( and cite :

Elodie Drula, Marie-Line Garron, Suzan Dogan, Vincent Lombard, Bernard Henrissat, Nicolas Terrapon (2022) The carbohydrate-active enzyme database : functions and literature Nucleic Acids Res 50 : D571–D577.
Full publication.

The above paper replaces the previous and popular references :

Lombard V, Golaconda Ramulu H, Drula E, Coutinho PM, Henrissat B (2014) The Carbohydrate-active enzymes database (CAZy) in 2013. Nucleic Acids Res 42:D490–D495. [PMID : 24270786]. Read the Abstract or the full paper.

Cantarel BL, Coutinho PM, Rancurel C, Bernard T, Lombard V, Henrissat B (2009) The Carbohydrate-Active EnZymes database (CAZy) : an expert resource for Glycogenomics. Nucleic Acids Res 37:D233-238 [PMID : 18838391].


B. And/or quote the references concerning the family classification(s)

Glycoside Hydrolases (or Glycosidases and Transglycosidases)

[1] Henrissat B (1991) A classification of glycosyl hydrolases based on amino-acid sequence similarities. Biochem. J. 280:309-316 [PMID : 1747104].

[2] Henrissat B, Bairoch A (1993) New families in the classification of glycosyl hydrolases based on amino- acid sequence similarities. Biochem. J. 293:781-788 [PMID : 8352747].

[3] Henrissat B, Bairoch A (1996) Updating the sequence-based classification of glycosyl hydrolases. Biochem. J. 316:695-696 [PMID : 8687420].

[4] Davies G, Henrissat B (1995) Structures and mechanisms of glycosyl hydrolases. Structure 3:853-859 [PMID : 8535779].

[5] Henrissat B, Davies GJ (1997) Structural and sequence-based classification of glycoside hydrolases. Curr. Op. Struct. Biol. 7:637-644 [PMID : 9345621].


[1] Campbell JA, Davies GJ, Bulone V, Henrissat B (1997) A classification of nucleotide-diphospho-sugar glycosyltransferases based on amino acid sequence similarities. Biochem. J. 326:929-939 [PMID : 9334165].

[2] Coutinho PM, Deleury E, Davies GJ, Henrissat B (2003) An evolving hierarchical family classification for glycosyltransferases. J. Mol. Biol. 328:307-317 [PMID : 12691742].

Polysaccharide Lyases and Carbohydrate Esterases

[1] Lombard V, Bernard T, Rancurel C, Brumer H, Coutinho PM, Henrissat B (2010) A hierarchical classification of polysaccharide lyases for glycogenomics. Biochem. J. 432:437-444 [PMID : 20925655]

Carbohydrate-Binding Modules

[1] Boraston AB, Bolam DN, Gilbert HJ, Davies GJ (2004) Carbohydrate-binding modules : fine-tuning polysaccharide recognition. Biochem. J. 382:769-781 [PMID : 15214846].

Auxiliary Activities

[1] Levasseur A, Drula E, Lombard V, Coutinho PM, Henrissat B. Expansion of the enzymatic repertoire of the CAZy database to integrate auxiliary redox enzymes. Biotech. for Biofuels 6:41 [PMID : 23514094].

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